The song ICU by Coco Jones is related to the 80s cause of the feeling, the vibe, and the sound that empower the 80s so much. She is a 25-year singer who uplifts the power of the 80s and the black community and that is “a beautiful fusion of modern neo-soul and blue dancing with each other over soothing instrumentation. Her track ICU is a reflection of the 80s world and on the track, she works between alto and mezzo-soprano, touching the lower octave on the song’s bridge while still being able to reach high notes on the hook. She is one of the successful black women, who work hard to achieve her career, she has so much talent and  Her song is about love that she never felt before and which is a way for her to express her feeling. In her song, she said “I got a feeling, a soul, that I need in my life” which shows so much connection to Grace Jones cause she needs to feel the love she wants, but her song alway uplifts her and makes her a better person. A lyric from Grace jone song is “By the time the song crescendos at the intersection of violence and sexuality, Jones offers the image of a hand brake penetrating a thigh, and then offers up making love before death, with a tone that suggests both are inevitable.” This show that her love life was never what she expect to get from people or pattern. Both Black successful women are so inspired by how they carry themself and present themself. 

Coco Jones – ICU – YouTube

Warm Leatherette-Grace Jones – Topic


Listening Party- Brian Saavedra

Rage Against the Machine’s song “Freedom”, the twelfth track of their self titled album, has a strong connection to Lost Notes 1980 and the some themes that were spread around that time. The Song ” raises awareness about the Native American Activist, Leonard Peltier, who was involved in the American Indian Movement (AIM).” (Genius, “Rage against the Machine – Freedom.”) and it is about how his is trial for two life sentences was questionable considering false testimonies and the prosecutions misconduct with false evidence. From many songs like this where they speak out of political systems of oppression and unjust systems, RATM are often seen as extremists.

Just like we saw in Lost Notes 1980 podcast episode “Hugh Masekela and Miriam Makeba”,we see cases where they are seen as extremists for talking against the law that was passed in South Africa and the injustices that are going on. We saw Mirima Makeba and Hugh Masekela both being banned from returning to their home country. In RATM’s case, news reports and concerts often shut them down and they are censored from the public for their lyrics which call out many relevant injustices going on everyday.

“Rage against the Machine – Freedom (Official HD Video).” YouTube, 26 Mar. 2011,

“Rage against the Machine – Freedom.” Genius, Accessed 16 May 2023.“Rage against the Machine – Freedom.” Genius, Accessed 16 May 2023.

Abdurraqib, Hanif. “In 1980, Hugh Masekela and Miriam Makeba Performed inside South Africa against the Government’s Wishes – in Lesotho.” KCRW, 24 Sept. 2020,

Listening Party- Jeremy Salvador

Micheal Jackson’s and Janet Jackson’s song “Scream” was a groundbreaking song for it’s time and was a way for Micheal and Janet to express their anger against the press and the media. I chose this song because I saw a connection to Lost Notes 1980 and how Grace Jones also faced criticisms from the media but used music to respond to backlash such as her song “Private Life”, where she states continuously “Private life drama baby leave me out”. I think this correlates to Screams theme of just wanting to be left alone, “Stop pressuring me makes me want to scream”. For black artist it is common to come under scrutiny when you start making an impact in the music industry but artist like Micheal Jackson and Grace Jones both used their music to send a message to the public and show their resilience.

Michael & Janet Jackson Scream Lyrics. (n.d.). Retrieved May 16, 2023, from

Grace Jones – Private Life (1980). (n.d.). Retrieved May 16, 2023, from

Listening Party-Madelyn

In his album Hotter than July Wonder addresses many issues that black people face. According to the article Review of Hotter Than July by Stephen Holden “Dedicated to Martin Luther King jr. Hotter Than July actually addresses black issues and its vision of romantic love is for a change.” Also according to the podcast Lost Notes 1980s “I and a growing number of people believe that it is time for our country to adopt legislation that will make January 15, Martin Luther King’s birthday, a national holiday, both in recognition of what he achieved and as a reminder of the distance which still has to be traveled.Join me in observance of January 15, 1981, as a national holiday.” After this speech he wrote the song “happy birthday” to emphasize his support on Jan 15 being dedicated to MLK.” This shows Wonder using his platform to speak out on historical events and in a way creating a movement.  An example of this in the present is a song by rapper Lil Baby called The Bigger Picture. In this song he describes the unfortunate truth about police brutality. According to the lyrics, “I gave ’em chance and chance and chance again. I even told them please. I find it crazy the police will shoot you and know that you are dead. But still tell you to freeze. It’s too many mothers that’s grieving. They are killing us for no reason. Been going on for too long to get even.” This shows how the same things Wonder was using his music for, artists today also do as well.

Listening Party- Melissa

Beyonce’s “Bigger” from her Black is King soundtrack has an intense link to the Lost Notes: 1980 due to its overall message regarding Black excellence. This song is about the unification of the Black community and how they all encompass a part of a greater whole. With lyrics such as “No matter how hard it gets, You got my blood in ya, And you’re gonna rise” (2:30), Beyonce makes it known that regardless of any struggles or hardships endured, the Black community can overcome all of it for the simple fact that they have a connection deeper than just the surface level. This is apparent in Lost Notes: Stevie Wonder made a massive comeback after a failed album; the Sugar Hill Gang became incredibly successful in the hip-hop world despite claims of their illegitimacy as hip-hop musicians; Miriam Makeba suffered backlash for speaking on civil rights struggles in South Africa yet she never stopped making music and speeches about it; Grace Jones continued to be her most authentic self in spite of criticisms for her outgoing persona; Minnie Riperton demonstrated what it means to be strong as she succeeded in her career while fighting with terminal cancer. All of these people are united by one thing: they are Black, and as a result, they have to fight larger battles than anyone else. “Bigger” redefines Black excellence as something that does not begin with the superficial, but rather the spiritual. There is a spiritual joy in being “Black on purpose for a purpose” (Dillard) and this purpose is what pushes the Black community to continue to thrive in their endeavors regardless of the obstacles in their path. 

“Bigger” by Beyonce

Dillard, Cynthia B. “When Black Is [Queen]: Towards an Endarkened Equity and Excellence in Education.” Equity & Excellence in Education, vol. 54, no. 1, 2021, pp. 19–27,

Listening Party-Hernan

the hip-hop record “Gangsta’s paradise” by Coolio relate’s a lot to Lost Notes:1980. with it’s release in 1995 it marked a cultural shift into what hip hop is known to sound like. The song samples “pastime paradise “, by Stevie wonder using his line “living in a pastime paradise” and converting it to this, “lurching stings, the other-worldly choir, and that soaring hook” (Savage), where instead it is, “they’ve been spending most their lives livin in a gangster’s paradise”(0:50).But ironically this song doesn’t highlight a ‘gangster’s paradise’ instead it talks mostly on a man failed by the government system since programs aren’t implemented to change these bad environments people live in, this man represents countless others that conform to this gangster lifestyle because they lack opportunities to develop skills or get involved in anything else besides this gangster life. This song shifted hip hop culture because it caught the attention of a larger audience with its use of minimal foul language, and a catchy beat used to send a message, it showed listeners that hip-hop doesn’t have to be just “gangster rap” . 

“Gangsta’s Paradise “YouTube, uploaded by Coolio, Sep 22, 2022.

Savage, Mark. “How Gangsta’s Paradise Changed the Course of hip-hop” BBC, 29 Sep 2022.

Listening Party- Esma

The song “Diamond Girl” by Stevie B holds a significant connection to the podcast Lost Notes:1980, as it embodies the vibrant musical landscape of the 1980s, explored in the podcast. This upbeat and melodic track captures the essence of the era’s pop and dance music, resonating with the podcast’s exploration of the cultural and musical shifts that took place during that time. As noted in Lost Notes:1980, the 1980s witnessed the rise of electronic music and the fusion of various genres, and “Diamond Girl” reflects this evolution. The song’s infectious rhythm and catchy hooks exemplify the cultural zeitgeist of the 1980s and the spirit of musical experimentation during that era (Lost Notes:1980, Ep. 3, timestamp 16:32). Moreover, the lyrics and energetic delivery of Stevie B further highlight the enthusiasm and optimism prevalent in 1980s pop music, an aspect intricately covered in the podcast’s narrative (Lost Notes:1980, Ep. 7, timestamp 21:45). Thus, “Diamond Girl” serves as a primary source reflecting the musical climate of the 1980s, while Lost Notes:1980 serves as a secondary source providing insightful analysis and historical context to further understand the song’s relevance in that era. The cultural shift referenced in the podcast Lost Notes:1980 and exemplified by the song “Diamond Girl” by Stevie B refers to the transformation and evolution of popular culture during the 1980s. This decade witnessed significant changes in music, fashion, technology, and social dynamics. Musically, the 1980s marked a departure from the disco-dominated 1970s, with the rise of electronic music, synth-pop, and new wave. Genres like hip-hop and rap also emerged, gaining popularity and reshaping the music industry. Additionally, the 1980s saw the advent of MTV, which revolutionized the way music was consumed and visually presented to the masses. Culturally, the 1980s represented a time of excess, materialism, and consumerism. It was characterized by bold fashion choices, flashy styles, and an emphasis on wealth and success. The Reagan era in the United States promoted conservative values and economic policies, which influenced the cultural landscape. The era also saw advancements in technology, including the rise of personal computers, video games, and the beginning of the internet. These developments shaped the way people communicated, consumed media, and interacted with the world. Overall, the cultural shift of the 1980s encompassed a blend of musical innovation, technological progress, and societal changes. It was a decade marked by both nostalgia for the past and a relentless drive towards the future, encapsulated by the vibrant and diverse sounds of songs like “Diamond Girl” by Stevie B.

The Rise of Music During The 1980’s

    During The 1980’s we saw the rise of various genres of music. these genres were a result of artists implementing new things into their music, creating bangers that left us with some of the most memorable and important artists of that decade. Artists of the time like Hugh Masekla and Miriam Makeba, along with Stevie Wonder, used their style of music in order to address social issues. And ,Grace Jones with her diva persona assisted her into stepping over boundaries from what people considered music. These and so many other artists worked on their expression of disgust or gratitude through music, that helped shape it into what we know and hear today. The sound of the 1980’s was the sound of artists taking risks, from showing resistance to social issues, to adapting and changing the culture. These artists pushed the limits into what their music can sound like, changing the way artists of today create their music and use there platform.

The risk sound of the 80’s can be heard when artists attempt to incorporate a groovy flow into their music that speaks up against social injustice.

In addition, artist in the 1980’s used their music as a way to show resilience against tyrannical governments even if it risked there freedom, or ruined there image.

On top of that, music in the 80’s had a wide discography, with new genres emerging here and there, artist either had to indulge in the popping sound or risk being forgotten.

Furthermore, the risk took in creativity through wordplay or beat use, helped artist bring there genre mainstream while also shaping our mindset’s guideline in what we expect to hear whenever a genre is mentioned.

Last but not least, issues beyond a artist control can begin to negatively affect there ability’s, however that does not stop them from performing in shows and doing what they loved most which was creating music.

In conclusion, the 1980’s was such an innovative period of artists using their musical talent, to mix and match different sounds into the genres they liked most ultimately changing what people expect to hear when whatever genre is mentioned . These were just some of the artists that arose in the 80’s and created this sound of  “risk-taking” during a cultural shift in music. They used music to address real world problems while also creating something they know won’t be forgotten in time. The music from the 80’s encouraged other artists to be unafraid in their creative expression through music. 

Review Discussion “The End of the Promises” 3/16

In todays discussion we went over broken promises, especially one made by the U.S government with the ELA bill, Which gave puerto Rico the ability to govern themselves but didn’t make them independent. we discussed how this was another way of avoiding the word colony. The implication of laws like PROMESA, have brought up questions of whether or not they were really self governing in the first place. each group in todays discussion had different reactions to the episode such as Brendas group who was confused on why Puerto rico kept letting America impose these laws when they know they won’t stand on there word. we also discussed about Cassie from Colorado a women who moved to Puerto Rico and captures the wonders of the island while downplaying and ignoring the struggles that the people on the island really face.

When the episode introduced Manuel Natal and his new political party which focused on current issues on the island such as corruption and the debt they are in, it gives me hope that this newer generation of politicians and elected officials are really into turning around these wrong doings against Puerto Rico, and more focused into converting the island into this stable economic and modern country that doesn’t rely on America help.

“The End of the Promises” 3/16

This episode of La Brega talks about the broken promises of the government of the United States. Starting with the ELA, the ELA was a commonwealth status that gave Puerto Rico some degree of autonomy while still being under the sovereignty of the United States. The ELA was established in 1952, and for many years, it was considered a symbol of Puerto Rican identity and self-determination. After the breaking of the ELA people quickly realized that the US did not care about Puerto Rico and only considered them a colony. This caused an economic crisis in Puerto Rico in which they were neck deep in debt. The uncertainty surrounding the future of Puerto Rico’s political status has created significant anxiety and tension for many Puerto Ricans. Those who advocate for statehood believe that it would provide more economic opportunities and greater political representation. However, others worry that statehood would mean losing some of Puerto Rico’s cultural identity and could lead to greater exploitation by the United States. The ongoing debt crisis has led to school and hospital closures, job losses, and cuts to social services, impacting the quality of life for many Puerto Ricans. Overall, the breaking of the ELA has had a complex and significant impact on the people of Puerto Rico, both in terms of their cultural identity and their daily lives.

My initial reaction to this episode was sort of a moment where I said to myself “of course they did”, It didn’t surprise me that the US had broken a promise in which they did not intend to keep in which created so many people to suffer not only economically but emotionally as well. The stories told in the episode touched my heart and kind of made me emotional. Coming from a family that had left their country to come to the US to live a better life I can understand the hurt and impact that the Puerto Ricans had felt.

My question is: Do you think that Puerto Rico is the only place in which the US has directly and indirectly destroyed? Why or Why not?

Discussion 3/14 – Bankruptcy Letters (bottom is 2/28 – Levittown: Where the Good Life Begins)

3/14 – Bankruptcy Letters was discussed about how Puerto Rico was in debt and the classic move for governments is to advantage of Puerto Ricans especially money. We answered the question whether or not if Puerto Rico will ever get out of debt. Some people agreed that it would not be possible for Puerto Rico to get out of debt due to the amount of money they owe, the government selfish manners and the law in place. Other half of people believed that it would be possible but within due time because of the process so far of who is getting rejected money and who will get money or the hope that the government will finally see Puerto Rico as a part of the USA.

My stance in this issue was that Puerto Rico wouldn’t get out of debt because of government issues, the lack of education and notice given to the creditors and lastly the amount of money owed. As stated in the text “When Mariluz received her own, she had only two days left until the deadline to send back her information. She was not alone. A lot of her co-workers also didn’t get a lot of advanced notice. None of them were very clear on how the process worked and were even less sure of how much the government owed them.” This evaluates the education aspect of the situation showing people had no time to go over files and paychecks they got to see how much they were owed along with showing people had no idea what was happening where they as a collective gathered up to see what money was owed and actions to take to claim said money.

2/28 – Levittown was a new city that brought the idea of a middle class an American one at that on Puerto Rico to be this alternative “American dream”. Everyone loved the town it looks exactly like the commercials and American living everyone had space and there was big community where parties and celebration were shared because they were close to each other. Although was so happy on the changes people forgot the struggles it took to get there and how to make such changes people needed to move out for other people to live the dream and go towards a more affordable place. Levittown was a good dream to have but many wanted to come to the United States of America but after all the rejections, the different cultures, different language and the struggle of living in a small space and huge rent that doesn’t match like many other people wanted to leave back to Puerto Rico, but some weren’t as lucky. This was a juggle Levittown and the USA because the economy was failing, and people were out of jobs and were debating whether to sell their houses in USA. Some had no choice and had to sell the house to keep money many people left Levittown and it turned empty over things like loss sense of community. One generation ago the community was high, and people always thought of their neighbors, and everyone would take care of each now people who didn’t live in that environment or the new gen can’t see a possibility where that was possible to care that much.

This episode for me was a bit relatable simply because of what I hear and from my own experience when it comes to being a Latina in USA. When people were speaking on the sense of belonging and the way people here think and talk to you is very different from if you were American born. The same is when you go back to your hometown it’s like a switch people think of you and your speaking of language and understanding as weird and gringa like which doesn’t help your transition anywhere you go. I think because the American dream and living is commercialized so many people don’t realize how bad things can be and are here in the states because yes there are a lot of opportunities maybe less crimes, but it is just like any other town with big obstacles in the way.

In your opinion was Levittown an “American” dream or a miniature version of USA living situations? Why?

Summary of today’s class 3/14

  After listening to “Basketball Warriors” from La Brega. We discussed in class how a basketball game could represent something much more significant to the Puerto Rican people when matched up against the U.S. We discussed how through sports, Puerto Rico could finally claim itself as sovereign, and also in a symbolic way they could face the country that owns them. In the “La Brega” series we witness how Puerto Ricans are known to rise up against the odds that were stacked against them, even through corruption and unfair treatment . Basketball was one way to send the message to the world that the Puerto Rican people weren’t afraid to fight for their respect. But even with these victories on the court, the real fight for respect and dignity was at home where their own government did not respect them. We see this in Episode 6 “Bankruptcy Letters”, where we discussed the debt crisis in Puerto Rico and how those who worked for the government never received the claims that were promised to them. We also spoke on how badly they were treated in the court, only being allowed up to 5 minutes to dispute their claims .     

Question~ How does Puerto Rico compare to the 50 states, and how could funding from the U.S help dig Puerto Rico out this financial hole,

Episode 6 3/14

In Episode 6 titled ” The Bankruptcy Letters” speaks about how the people of Puerto Rico has filled out papers to show something that they have been owed. Mariluz and many other people filled out those papers together sitting down to do the math and calculate how much money they are owed by the government from wage increased they were promised by the government. Not only were they promised it was legislated and approved which means it was a law that the people get their money. When Mariluz did her calculations of how much money the government owed her it was ” 75 mil pesos” “75 thousand dollars”. The main reason why the episode is called the ” The Bankruptcy Letter” is because after the people filed they papers about what the government owed they they have gotten no response so people took it into there own hands and wrote letters to the government a line from Mariluz letter “El motivo de la reclamación es de 75000 o más a la que tenga derecho.” “Her claim is for 75 thousand dollars or whatever she is legally entitled to”.

When listening to this podcast it was very surprising to me that thing literally happened a couple of years ago. Now I am wondering if they have gotten some of their money from COVID with the stimulus checks were going out did they get theirs? But Mariluz wasn’t the only person who wrote letters weather you are a police officer, teachers or even incarcerated they wrote their letters to demand what they are owed and that is the fair. Puerto Rico does not do allows their people to have a voice. Puerto Ricans are not allowed to vote for the president of the United States and they are apart of our country nor do they have the right to vote for anyone in congress but they can vote for resident commissioner who has no vote in congress who the puerto rican voice does not matter to the government?

Question ~ Would Puerto Rico get out of debt fully ? When they do or not would they ever give the people of Puerto Rico the voice that they deserve?

Episode 5 3/09

In Episode 5 titled “Basketball Warriors,” we are told about Puerto Rico’s massive sports success, specifically basketball. The narrator walks us through the most important game in Puerto Rican basketball history, in which PR went against the US in the 2004 Olympics in Athens. This game was very nerve-wracking considering the US had its star players such as Alan Iverson, Dwayne Wade, Tim Duncan, and Lebron James. No one expected Puerto Rico to win. During the game, PR had been ahead of the US, and when the US had caught up to the score, Puerto Ricans started to lose hope. However, Puerto Rican player Carlos Arroyo “the young gun,” shocked everyone when in the last minute of the game he managed to bring PR back up 20 points, making them win the game. Arroyo made headlines as he posed for pictures showing off his jersey which said “Puerto Rico” on the front. It was an amazing moment for Puerto Rico since they were finally able to win against the US at their own game.

I was pleasantly surprised as I was listening to this episode. It was very refreshing to hear about an event that was actually used to describe Puerto Rican pride rather than the suffering and hardships Puerto Ricans have had to endure. The emphasis put on Puerto Rico beating the USA is extremely important because it demonstrates how PR was able to beat their “oppressors” and beat the country that was limiting them from reaching their full potential. Although Puerto Rico did not continue to win any games after the 2004 Olympics, this win was sufficient to leave them content for many years to come. It was a new sense of hope for the island and its people.

My question is: Can hope ever be enough to fulfill a person and should people always be expected to be hopeful when put in difficult situations?

3/7 – Episode 4

Episode 4, “Vieques and the Promise To Build Back Better.” In the last class discussions, we see how Puerto Rico was affected after Hurricane Maria. President Trump’s response to the island’s situation was useless, since only a few interviews were conducted that came to nothing in concrete to help Puerto Rico and its current situation. The governor was in the throes of having to deal with section 428 of the law that allows him to bring in aid from the US government and make repairs to houses damaged by the hurricane, but with this came the risk that it would only put Puerto Rico in a much worse debt than it was. Ending with the situation that the hospitals and the country itself were letting people die due to the lack of electricity, food, money and medical assistance that was lacking on the island after the hurricane.

I think that people should see this situation as something more than a country going through a lot of Brega because they went along with this situation by themselves, their president ignored their situation and just saw it as a way to show up publicity but deep down without the news, the 428 section and the support of people outside of Puerto Rico they would never recover from situations like that.

Is the struggle to obtain independence for Puerto Rico really worth it? Because if they act as an individual country, what stops them from their independence?

Ep.4 Empty Promises 3/7

Ep.4 of La Brega ‘Vieques and the Promise To Build Back Better’ discusses the aftermath and long term effects of Hurricane Maria on Puerto Rico. In this Podcast episode we see the disrespect and lack of care the government of the U.S. had on Puerto Rico. We start off with President Trump visiting the Island and throwing rolls of paper towels towards the hurricane victims. We also listen to how the president of Puerto Rico reached out for help and FEMA made it seem they held a grudge and did not want to help them. The president then was pressured into signing an act that would help puerto rico but even after a year of the act passed, no projects have been green-lit to be built. We end with a sad story of 13 year old girl who died because the hospital where she was did not have the necessary equipments to treat and save her. This sparked a national effort for protest about the things they were promised which they still haven’t received.

There was more things going on than what I have said but my take on this was that the attempts and empty promises to help the people of puerto rico was just a big kick to the face. Multiple empty promises for restructure and support were given with no fulfillment to the promises. For example, The 420 act was supposed to build back everything destroyed by the Hurricane but a year after they still are destroyed. The promise to build projects like hospitals are still not green-lit and its almost like a “soon” promises that never will be completed. Especially in the case with the 13 year old girl who could not receive proper care and treatment in critical condition which showed the dire situation for action in Puerto Rico.

A question I have is what good is a promise that cannot be completed and what effects does it have on the person waiting?

Review Discussion 3/2

Ep. 3 of La Brega’s ‘An Encyclopedia of Betrayal’ narrates and emphasizes the true mean of “La Brega.” In this film, we can see the impact of corrupt government/politics, hurricane Maria, colonialism, economic crisis, and the struggle for independence. The Puerto Rican people have long been fighting for social and environmental justice for their Island. Many activists, artists, and journalists have come out to express their thoughts and fight for their rights against those in high political power by who they have been terribly betrayed.

My take on this episode is that Puerto Ricans are fighting against the biggest Brega ever and multiple brega’s at the same time. Being betrayed by their own people who are supposed to support and defend them has allowed many of them to flee and migrate somewhere else, but at the same time allows them to unify and defend their rights and most importantly their freedom of speech.

A question I would love to ask is, does freedom of speech still exist, and if it doesn’t how can we regain that right back?

Review of Discussion 2/28

From the last discussion, we went over Levittown, Where the good life begins. We discussed how Levittown represented a dream, the American dream. Levittown is a suburb that was supposed to benefit Puerto Ricans in housing. Owning a home, having a car, a good job with money, and a family are all part of the American dream as we discussed. Housing is a major part of the American dream and consumerism shaped how the U.S. made decisions, it was vision mixed with politics. The housing injustice is shown when Puerto Ricans couldn’t even afford a home and some were even forced to move out in order to create Levittown. The only way that was shown to keep a home was by winning the lottery which proves the big gap between promise and reality in the dream. 

From listening to Levittown there is a connection to “Harlem” by Langston Hughes a dream deferred. The dream is the American dream and it is deferred, placed on hold or it is gone. There’s also another connection in “A Raisin in the Sun” where there’s another form of housing injustice like Puerto Ricans faced in Levittown. People are faced with struggles and it progresses more and more the farther we go. We see the number of problems caused by Levittown because of the dream. 

I wonder if the American dream is even achievable and how could it affect society in other ways like Levittown. 

Review of Thursdays discussion

From the discussion, we talked about what La Brega means and what it meant to us before listening to the audio. From there we learned the various ways people from Puerto Rico live and how this is nothing new to people who live there, and some of us have experienced it firsthand. Some examples mentioned were the potholes, the way people shower, no electricity, yet people continue to always put a smile on their faces to go on with their day. Citizens of Puerto Rico have gotten used to these conditions since it is a daily thing they go through and the government keeps avoiding these problems. Many ideas were brought up that these potholes symbolized the struggles, and endless cycles, and could symbolize neglect.
My take on this episode of La Brega is that the potholes symbolize everyday life struggles that the citizens of Puerto Rico are trying to fix. While they are constantly needing resources and struggling, it ironically unifies them more in order to fulfill the missing pieces of Puerto Rico. A question I continue to ask is what more may the potholes symbolize and how does La Brega relate to everyone around the world?

Discussion Board of What is La Brega?

In the episode, the word La Brega has many definitions for different Spanish people.  the word La Brega can be described as struggle, survival, work, or determination. This episode is about the struggle Puerto Ricans go through and how they live their life until this accident happens and the struggle they going through. They also revealed the different aspects of the Puerto Rican experience and they also mention that if it wasn’t for the hurricane that happened Puerto Rica would not get any kind of attention or helps.

While listening to the episode, I realized Puerto Ricans have to deal with so much in their everyday life, and how they can’t do anything about it, they have to push themself to be able to survive this type of condition. It also makes me think that even though life is tough, we must push ourselves to find the peace/happiness we want. So even though Puerto Ricans go through those things, they find a way to stay positive and which makes me alway think positively and not negatively cause those things could bring your happiness down.

Besides Spanish people, How would other nations view La Brega? Can other Spanish countries relate to the struggle the Puerto Rican going through or how they related to this struggle?

Class 07: “What is La Brega?” / “Que Es La Brega?”

Today in class we’ll start a new podcast. This much longer series will be our foundation for using the Lehman library’s many resources.

There will be an increased focus on composing complex annotations in, so hopefully you have used the first podcast to get comfortable with that technology. If you haven’t, please let me know how I can help.

We’ll be focusing today on some important practices today: extended writing time, long discussions, a framework for posing questions in, and a procedure for capturing our discussions OR for framing the next one.

Class 05: Think Locally, Act Globally

In this class we looked at our drafts of Essay 1. We spent some time starting these on Thursday. You’ll be able to work with my feedback on this draft in concert with your peers’ feedback. Here’s an example of local feedback from a great first paragraph:

Class 04: “Cassetternet”

As ever, the flow of our class is on “Chalkboard.” This is our last day discussing the many issues that emerge from Mixtape, so let’s get to it:

Review: We’ve listened to three episodes that develop Simon Adler’s argument. “Dakou” is about control and customizability as cassette tapes and the music on them find their way into the underground of 1980s China. “Jack and Bing” is about a “deceptively huge shift” in the production of radio that points to the conflicting urges to capture and document versus to perfect and improve. Each of these episodes has a little guy vs. The Man vibe to it. The last episode features a few underdogs, too.

Discussion: Today we’ll talk about “Cassetternet.” Many of you were struck by the notion of “sharing” versus “owning” ideas. What’s interesting in the Fuxoft part of the episode is how it’s a conversation. More globally, how does technology change depending on the purpose to which it’s put? Can it be a means to speak truth to power, to deliver a message or achieve a goal that might otherwise be impossible? What examples come to mind? What other forces does Simon Adler describe in this episode that began with cassette technology, but (maybe) remain today?

Activity: In groups of three or four, respond to annotations from other students. Which sections are they highlighting that you might quote in your paper. As a quick lesson, we’ll talk about how to use audio in your essays (if we have time). With the balance of class left after our sentence workshop and discussion, we’ll turn to outlining in preparation for Thursday’s in-class drafting.

Class 03: “Jack and Bing”

Good afternoon! We have a lot to do today, and most of the logistical business and lessons are on the “Chalkboard.” There’s a lot to cover with today’s episode, and I’m playing around with putting it here. Here’s the plan for our discussion of Mixtape:

Review: Tuesday, we listened, annotated, and discussed “Dakou.” We’ll start by recalling to ourselves, first in our notebooks and then out loud, how this episode supports Simon Adler’s assertion that ours is “a cassette world.” How did “Dakou” answer the question you’ll have to tackle soon, namely: What is “a cassette world” and are we living in it?  

Discussion: For today, you read “Jack and Bing,” which is less a buddy movie and more a study in contrasts about what to do with a “deceptively huge shift” in the production of radio and later all broadcast media. What are your overall reactions to this text? How does it answer the question that “Dakou” attempted? What new questions emerge from your reading? 

Activity: In groups of three or four, respond to one of the dozen or so annotations I’ve left in the transcript of today’s episode of Mixtape. Some places to start:

  1. Another opening anecdote about technology. What are your ‘first’ device stories?
  2. Bing’s “work-life balance.” Compare/contrast the public and private versions of Bing?
  3. Celebrities and privacy. Does/must fame/influence “cost” the loss of privacy?
  4. Live vs. taped performance: What’s “magic” about live performance? About recording?
  5. Ethics & editing: When is it “wrong” to edit tape, and what makes it that way?
  • Independent Work: Reread or (at home) re-listen to the passage at the very end, where Simon Adler argues that with every social media window we open, we’re “torn between Jack and Bing.” What does he mean by this? Do you agree or disagree with him? What’s your response to the claim one of you astutely made: “it is very easy to get caught up in wanting to portray a false reality for the outside world and that is very detrimental to who we are as people and as a society.” What do we do with ‘false’ reality? When do we produce it ourselves, Why? What are the ethics around it? Why do we do it, even if it is “very detrimental”? Or is it actually harmless, in the grand scheme of things?
  • Please brainstorm, draft, and edit your reply in a paragraph or two. Publish it using; if is not working super well, post your thoughts as a reply to this blog post. If neither of them are working, you can post it to the Discussion Board’s “Mixtape Open Forum”–but see me to work out these technology issues.

Class 02

Good afternoon!

Today we’ll continue the work of orienting ourselves to the course, with a particular eye on a few digital tools: Blackboard, CUNY Academic Commons, and

Of these, is the most important and (initially) the most high maintenance. So we’ll start (and, probably, end) there.

In between, I’ll walk you through the basic functions we’ll use Blackboard for. And I’ll explain how we’ll use CUNY Academic Commons, too.

In terms of content, we’ll split class evenly between two tasks: a lesson on revision with some practice just after, and a lesson on annotation with (you guessed it) practice.

Class 01

Belated thanks to all of you for a wonderful first day. I’m looking forward to sharing this site and our Blackboard site with you later today.

Generally, a “Class Notes” post will show up on this site around noon Tuesdays and Thursdays. It’ll frame our work for that day, make any notes or adjustments to our schedule, and briefly respond to classwork from the previous class meeting.